By Tom Papademetriou
The bought knowledge concerning the nature of the Greek Orthodox Church within the Ottoman Empire is that Sultan Mehmed II reestablished the Patriarchate of Constantinople as either a political and a spiritual authority to control the post-Byzantine Greek neighborhood. even though, family members among the Church hierarchy and Turkish masters expand additional again in background, and nearer scrutiny of those kinfolk finds that the Church hierarchy in Anatolia had lengthy event facing Turkish emirs by means of targeting monetary preparations. Decried as scandalous, those preparations grew to become the modus vivendi for bishops within the Turkish emirates.
Primarily taken with the industrial preparations among the Ottoman country and the establishment of the Greek Orthodox Church from the mid-fifteenth to the 16th century, Render Unto the Sultan argues that the Ottoman nation thought of the Greek Orthodox ecclesiastical hierarchy essentially as tax farmers (mültezim) for money source of revenue derived from the church's common holdings. The Ottoman country granted participants the ideal to take their positions as hierarchs in go back for every year funds to the kingdom. hoping on participants of the Greek monetary elite (archons) to buy the ecclesiastical tax farm (iltizam), hierarchical positions grew to become topic to an analogous forces of pageant that different Ottoman administrative workplaces confronted. This ended in colourful episodes and a number of demanding situations to ecclesiastical authority all through Ottoman lands.
Tom Papademetriou demonstrates that minority groups and associations within the Ottoman Empire, prior to now, were thought of both from in the neighborhood, or from open air, from the Ottoman standpoint. This new procedure permits us to think about inner Greek Orthodox communal matters, yet from in the higher Ottoman social and financial context.
Render Unto the Sultan demanding situations the lengthy confirmed inspiration of the 'Millet System', the old version within which the non secular chief served either a civil in addition to a non secular authority. From the Ottoman state's viewpoint, the hierarchy was once there to serve the non secular and financial functionality instead of the political one.
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Extra resources for Render unto the Sultan: Power, Authority, and the Greek Orthodox Church in the Early Ottoman Centuries
The matter could be as important as international diplomacy or as seemingly insignificant as addressing a complaint by a local artisan. There are numerous examples of entries detailing ecclesiastical administrative matters as well. Specific examples from the Mühimme Defterleri, from Stephan Gerlach’s Tagebuch, the patriarchal chronicles, and even a letter by a patriarchal tax collector detailing his journey with population figures and statistics on clergy serve as the basis for this chapter. The last part and Chapter 5 demonstrates how the Ottoman state, Greek Orthodox prelates, and certain members of the Greek economic elite cooperated with each other in order to exploit the institution of the church and its holdings as an economic resource.
Inalcik, “The Policy of Mehmet II Toward the Greek Population of Istanbul,” 240. 15 Zachariadou, “Ta Logia kai o Thanatos tou Louka Notara,” 144–146. This is a good review of the various versions of the death of Notaras. Kritovoulos’ description is preferred, however. Zachariadou accepts Notaras’ legacy of facing death heroically, and creating him as an ethnomartyr. 16 Inalcik, “The Policy of Mehmet II toward the Greek Population of Istanbul,” 240. 17 Asiq-Pasha-zade, Vom Hirtenzelt Zur Hohen Pforte, trans.
The most visible and powerful Greek in this period was Michael Kantakouzenos. The impact of Kantakouzenos and others like him influenced the way in which the Church conducted its business within the Greek community and with the Ottoman state. This chapter also considers how “corruption” and “scandal” became a part of the working vocabulary of the Greek community describing the sixteenth-century Church. Finally, the Church will be considered as an Ottoman fiscal institution that existed in an Ottoman social context.