By Domenico Cimini, Frank S. Marzano, Guido Visconti
The booklet collects the lectures brought in the course of the seventh foreign summer time institution on Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (ISSAOS) titled “Integrated Ground-Based watching platforms functions for weather, Meteorology, and Civil Protection”. The ebook goals to give a contribution to the medical figuring out of easy innovations and functions of built-in ground-based watching platforms. the 1st half describes most typical instrumentations with their power and boundaries; strategic plans for the deployment of an statement web site are mentioned, including an summary of strategies for integrating heterogeneous information. the second one half introduces state-of-the-art purposes, together with assimilation in numerical climate prediction, weather benchmarking, air caliber tracking, and meteo/hydrological warnings.
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Additional info for Integrated Ground-Based Observing Systems: Applications for Climate, Meteorology, and Civil Protection
Larger antennas are heavier, require more powerful motors to move them, and are more expensive than smaller ones. In the next sections a typical block diagram of a weather radar system will be discussed together with the derivation of the fundamental equations and the basic observable definitions and their physical significance. 1 Radar Scheme The precipitation radar principally consists of a transmitter, a receiver, a transmitter/receiver switch (or circulator), and an antenna. Fig. 1 shows a typical block diagram of a weather radar.
These measurements yield needful information on the intensity and distribution of the rain, on the rain type, on the storm depth, and on the height at which the snow melts into rain. The estimates of the heat released into the atmosphere at different heights based on these measurements can be used to improve models of the global atmospheric circulation. Radars to study precipitations are not the unique existing radar systems. 3 mm or in frequency domain, respectively, at 35 and 90 GHz. When installed on the ground, they monitor clouds which pass over the radar site or in other words they are vertically pointed.
All the above topics will be discussed in the second part of this volume. 30 D. R. Westwater References Battaglia A, Saavedra P, Rose T, Simmer, C (2009) Rain observations by a multifrequency dual polarized radiometer. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett 6(2):354–358 Bianco LD, Cimini FS, Marzano, Ware R (2005) Combining microwave radiometer and wind profiler radar measurements for high-resolution atmospheric humidity profiling. J Atmos Oceanic Tech 22:949–965, July 2005 Cimini D, Hewison TJ, Martin L, Güldner J, Gaffard C, Marzano FS (2006) Temperature and humidity profile retrievals from ground-based microwave radiometers during TUC.