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By Stolterfoht N., DuBois R.D., Rivarola R.D.

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I spent a few years by working to complete Mackey’s program and I developed the general contextual approach based on families of probabilities obtained by measuring of various observables for various contexts. , the squared amplitude coincides with the probability. 4 Against Completeness Main message: In the past, various models of reality have been claimed to be final (complete). The most known examples are Euclidean geometry (see, especially Kant [123]) and Newtonian mechanics. However, sooner or later such scientific myths died.

The latter written in 1910 contained the following: What we understand by the theory of “light quanta” may be formulated in the following fashion: a radiation of frequency ν can be emitted or absorbed only in a well-defined quantum of magnitude hν. The theoreticians have not yet even come to an agreement in regard to the following question: Can the light quanta be accounted for entirely by a characteristic of the emitting or absorbing substance, or should the electromagnetic radiation itself be assigned, besides a wave structure, such that the energy of the radiation itself is already divided in definite quanta?

44, 249]). The presence of this field plays the crucial role in SEDs description of quantum effects. We recall that already in 1911 Planck introduced the hypothesis of the zero point electromagnetic field in an effort to avoid Einstein’s ideas about discontinuity in the emission and absorption processes. It is important for our further considerations that neither the semiclassical approach nor SED resolve the wave–particle dualism. Neither was it resolved by Bohmian mechanics, the modern version of de Broglie’s double solution approach.

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