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When a decision-maker is considering a decision problem involving gains or losses, she chooses a ‘‘status quo’’ from which the gains or losses are measured. The language in which the problem is expressed can influence this choice of a status quo. In Rescue Dilemma 1, the thought experimenter chooses as a status quo the situation in which the ‘‘sixth person’’ dies, so that a decision to save the person corresponds to an increase in value, a positive movement along a curve graphing ‘‘psychologically real’’ value against units of some ‘‘good,’’ in this case, lives.

That is, a significant number of people should be expected to affirm (1), (2), and (3), while rejecting the conclusion (4). At the same time, 34 The Epistemology of A Priori Knowledge some people should be expected to affirm (4), having affirmed all the premises. The analogous point can be made about the sequential coin toss situation. A significant number of people in the ‘‘Don’t Know’’ situation with respect to the bet should be expected to reject the argument: (5) Either you will learn you won the first time you played the bet or you will learn you lost.

Introduction 19 question is the correct answer. In the same ‘‘act of thought’’ the philosopher intuits the philosophical principle he is applying in arriving at his answer. Finally, the philosopher concludes that this thought experiment has provided some measure of credibility, a priori, to both the answer and the philosophical principle. Tamara’s thesis in this essay is that the second intuitive judgment— the judgment as to what principle is guiding the intuitive choice of correct answer—can be completely wrong without the philosopher having any cognitive access to the fact that it is completely wrong.

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