By Heiko HüNeke and Thierry Mulder (Eds.)
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Dvina (Russia) Kolyma (Russia) Sao Francisco (Brazil) St. 1 Csav, average annual suspended-particle concentration values; Qav, average annual discharge values; Cc, concentration threshold to generate hyperpycnal flows (Mulder and Syvitski, 1995); Csflood, maximum flood concentration in suspended particle. Rivers that easily form hyperpycnal flows by re-concentration of a hyperpycnal plume are underlined. e. without taking into account re-concentration processes). 3). In addition, several processes can intensify the formation of hyperpycnal flows at river mouths: (a) the dilution of sea water by fresh water during long-duration floods (range of weeks to months) that can decrease the concentration threshold to initiate hyperpycnal flows, and (b) erosion of mouth bars that can substantially increase the fine sand content within a flow.
1). g. , 1971). 49 (1): equatorial (latitude < 10 ); (2): tropical and subtropical (latitude 10–30 ); (3): temperate (latitude 30–50 ); (4): subpolar (latitude > 50 ). Modified from Mulder and Syvitski (1995). 6. 1. The formation of hyperpycnal flows The formation of a hyperpycnal flow can occur in different river settings and due to various types of external forcing. Hyperpycnal flows can be either dominated by turbulence and transport by suspension and thus correspond to hyperpycnal turbidity currents of Mulder and Syvitski (1995) or nonturbulent and dominated by bedload transport and thus correspond to inertia flows of Bates (1953) or hyperpycnal flows of Mutti et al.
However, the scaling of the parameters, the space for the experiment and the duration of the processes differ drastically between laboratory experiments and natural processes. To make a comparison between laboratory experiments and natural phenomena, non-dimensional numbers are used, such as the Froude number, which is defined as the ratio between inertial and gravity forces: 27 Gravity Processes and Their Deposits U ﬃ: Fr ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ g0 H The Froude number defines the state of the flow: critical if Fr ¼ 1, subcritical if Fr < 1 and supercritical if Fr >1, where U is the mean flow body velocity and H is the thickness of the flow body.