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The OECD is a special foium the place the governments of 30 democracies interact to handle the commercial, social and environmental demanding situations of globalisation. The OECD is additionally on the vanguard of efforts to appreciate and to aid governments reply to new advancements and matters, similar to company governance, the knowledge economic system and the demanding situations of an getting older inhabitants. The agency offers a environment the place governments can evaluate coverage stories, search solutions to universal difficulties, determine strong perform and paintings to co-ordinate family and overseas regulations.

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Sample text

For ease of understanding the evaluation problem, it is helpful to separate the effects into three spatial/temporal categories: ● 44 There are local effects on residents and workers, and to property, in the area immediately adjacent to the transport activity. Noise nuisance is the most apparent problem, but there are also local air pollutants, such as lead and particulates, which can which can have adverse effects for health, while sulphur and other emissions can damage buildings. DECOUPLING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TRANSPORT FROM ECONOMIC GROWTH – ISBN 92-64-02712-2 – © OECD 2006 3.

The data are expressed in million euros per year for total passenger and freight, and in euro per 1 000 pkm or tkm for the average cost of passenger and freight. 3% of the total GDP, in EU17. Climate change was the most important cost category, with 30% of total costs. Air pollution and accident costs amounted to 27% and 24% respectively. Noise and life-cycle processes each accounted for 7% of the total costs. The costs for nature and landscape and additional urban effects were seen to be of minor importance (5%).

Road transport-related emissions of VOCs have also been absolutely decoupled from GDP for the US and Europe since 1970. In the US, these emissions fell by 27%, while GDP was increasing by 169%. As with NOx, most of this decline can be attributed to emission abatement technologies, such as particle filters, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic converter.

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