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By Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) is considered the co-discoverer with Darwin of the idea of evolution. It was once an essay which Wallace despatched in 1858 to Darwin (whom he drastically trendy and to whom he devoted his most renowned e-book, The Malay Archipelago) which impelled Darwin to put up an editorial on his personal long-pondered thought at the same time with that of Wallace. As a vacationing naturalist and collector within the a long way East and South the US, Wallace already susceptible in the direction of the Lamarckian thought of transmutation of species, and his personal researches confident him of the truth of evolution. at the e-book of at the starting place of Species, Wallace grew to become considered one of its such a lot admired advocates, and Darwinism, released in 1889, helps the idea and counters a few of the arguments recommend through scientists and others who adverse it.

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Extra info for Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection, with some of its Applications

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A chain of connection has thus been found between such totally distinct organisms as flesh-eating mammalia and sweetsmelling flowers, the abundance or scarcity of the one closely corresponding to that of the other! The following account of the struggle between trees in the forests of Denmark, from the researches of M. 1 The chief combatants are the beech and the birch, the former being everywhere successful in its invasions. Forests composed wholly of birch are now only found in sterile, sandy tracts; everywhere else the trees are mixed, and wherever the soil is favourable the beech rapidly drives out the birch.

More recently, in New Zealand, pigs have multiplied so greatly in a wild state as to be a serious nuisance and injury to agriculture. 1 Now, in the case of all these animals, we know that in their native countries, and even in America at the present time, they do not increase at all in numbers; therefore the whole normal increase must be kept down, year by year, by natural or artificial means of destruction. Rapid Increase and Wide Spread of Plants. In the case of plants, the power of increase is even greater and its effects more distinctly visible.

The writer believes that light (or rather shade) is the cause of the superiority of the latter, for it has a greater development of its branches than the birch, which is more open and thus allows the rays of the sun to pass through to the soil below, while the tufted, bushy top of the beech preserves a deep shade at its base. Hardly any young plants can grow under the beech except its own shoots; and while the beech can flourish under the shade of the birch, the latter dies immediately under the beech.

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