By Ronald Welch
Книга посвящена рыцарям-крестоносцам 1187-1344 гг
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Extra info for Crusader Knight
To the south, the Crimean Khanate, ruled by the Tatars (a faction of the Mongols) and backed by the Ottomans, controlled the Black Sea coast and periodically launched raids into Ukrainian lands along the Dnieper in order to captures slaves and other treasure. ”4 UKRAINE UNDER THE POLISH-LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH By the 1500s, it was thus apparent that Lithuania was in decline. In 1522, it lost Chernihiv and Starodub, in what is now northeastern Ukraine, to Moscow. Raids from the Crimean Tatars continued.
Ukrainians today eagerly claim the glories of Rus, still preserved in a few sites in Kiev and elsewhere in the country, as their own. The rise of Kievan Rus, however, is an issue shrouded by controversy. The central question is this: Who were the founders of Kievan Rus? One version, the so-called Scandinavian or Viking theory, is found in the Russian Primary Chronicle. It relates: 860–862: The tributaries of the Varangians drove them back beyond the sea and, refusing them further tribute, set out to govern themselves.
Non-Catholics could not belong to the szlachta, and Orthodox institutions of higher learning were closed. Polish authorities even limited the number of Ruthenian families that could live in urban settlements and imposed punitive taxes on them. Polish elites also cultivated a myth that they were descended from the ancient Sarmatians (see Chapter 2), and local Ruthenian nobles bought into this insofar as it offered them the possibility of forming a common bond with their Polish counterparts. One Ruthenian, writing in the early 1600s, complained: And so, step by step, by their learning they [Poles] enticed all the Rus lords into the Roman faith so that the descendents of the Rus princes were rebaptised from the Orthodox faith into the Roman one, and changed their family names and their Christian names as if they had never been descendents of their pious forebears.