By Dr. Lars Thoger Christensen, Ms Mette Morsing, George Cheney
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Additional info for Corporate Communications: Convention, Complexity and Critique
Thus, also apparently passive behaviours fall within the frame of enactment, for example the failure of an organization to act in a situation of crisis. Increasingly, however, organizations consciously set out to produce their own environments through proactive behaviours, for example when corporations or politicians seek to define situations and values in advance of public attention and demands (Cheney and Christensen, 2001a). Organizations enact their own environments by paying attention to certain things in their surroundings and ignoring others.
On the other hand, integration is expected to circumscribe this “new” into the system, to “identify” the new with the integrating unit. When this is a two-way process, the incorporated part will be able to modify the incorporating system. Integration, in other words, is a process that, ideally speaking, redefines both the parts and the whole. The derived notions of integrity and integral mirror this tension between the whole and the parts. While integrity designates the quality or condition of being whole, consistent or undivided, to be integral means to constitute a vital part within some complete unit or whole, that is, a part that retains relative autonomy within that unity.
In the context of corporate communications, strategy is not limited to processes of analyzing and reacting to external contingencies (first-order strategies), but involves conscious attempts on the part of the organization to influence and shape its own environment (second-order strategies). Organizations apply second-order strategies when they seek to define and shape the conditions for their strategies. Rather than simply uncovering and recording “what’s coming out there” and then designing or prescribing measures to adapt to these changes, scholars and practitioners of corporate communications recognize that in a world of uncertainty, organizations need to set changes in motion themselves that they hope will become true tomorrow (Berg, 1989; Brown and Eisenhardt, 1998; Hamel and Prahalad, 1994).