By Paul Veyne
Qu’est-ce que l’histoire ? que font réellement les historiens, de Homère à Max Weber, une fois qu’ils sont sortis de leurs files et records et qu’ils procèdent à une « synthèse » ? Font-ils l’étude scientifique des diverses créations et activités des hommes d’autrefois ? Leur technology est-elle celle de l’homme en société ?Bien moins que cela ; los angeles réponse à los angeles query n’a pas changé depuis deux mille deux cents ans que les successeurs d’Aristote l’ont trouvée : les historiens racontent des événements vrais qui ont l’homme pour acteur. L’histoire est un roman vrai.
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Extra info for Comment on écrit l'histoire: Essai d'épistémologie
But the appeal to private and incommunicable senses cannot, I think, be a satisfactory resolution of the problem. " Or at least, no reason to accept this, with such a reading that it leads to incommunicable senses. Suppose M is the private and incommunicable sense, which is to serve as the sense of "I" when I think about myself. M cannot be a complex sense, resulting from the compounding of simpler, generally accessible senses. For it seems clear that it is sufficient, to grasp the result of such compounding, that one grasp the senses compounded.
This chapter was basically an early version of Essay 2 but it began with a quick treatment of Frege. The paper got a lukewarm reaction, and Julius Moravcsik suggested I break it into two, one of which focused on Frege more adequately, the other on the contemporary distinction between de dicto and de re belief. In claiming that demonstratives and indexicals pose a problem for Frege's theory of sense and reference, I did not mean to reject Frege's insight that when we think about an object or refer to one, some "mode 7 Discussions of these issues with Robert Adams, Michael Bratman, Tyler Burge, Keith Donnellan, Dagfinn F011esdal, Alvin Goldman, Holly Goldman, David Kaplan, and Julius Moravcsik were enormously helpful.
So the sentence by which I identify what I came to believe does not identify, by itself, a proposition. There is a missing conceptual ingredient: a sense for which I am the reference, or a complex of properties I alone have, or a singular term that refers to no one but me. To identify the proposition I came to believe, the advocate of the doctrine of propositions must identify this missing conceptual ingredient. An advocate of the doctrine of propositions, his attention drawn to indexicals, might take this attitude towards them: they are communicative shortcuts.