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By Tim Wright

This publication presents a massive contribution to the industrial background of recent China. It examines the background of the coal mining - considered one of China's biggest and most crucial - from the beginnings of modernisation round 1895 to the beginning of the Sino-Japanese conflict in 1937. It addresses questions of either monetary and socio-political heritage and contributes to our wisdom of many facets of early twentieth-century chinese language historical past. It examines the gradual development of the fashionable area of the chinese language economic system and considers the results of overseas funding and possession, the availability of capital, the expertise of construction, the provision of neighborhood entrepreneurship and compares the evolution of the chinese language coal with improvement in other places. This e-book could be of curiosity to these inquisitive about the issues of commercial development generally in addition to to experts on sleek China.

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43--4. These figures are only approximate because of changes in the basis of customs reporting in the 19205 and 19305, both in respect of exported bunker coal and in the classification of Manchuria as 'foreign' from mid-1932. These difficulties do not affect the overall trend shown by this table. compared to the effects of their original construction. So, once these effects had largely worked through, demand became the main determinant of the rate of growth of the industry. The growth and composition of demand 51 around 1850 there emerged centres, mainly in the treaty ports, oflarge-scale consumption by industry and shipping which were not able to rely on local supplies and which were able and indeed obliged to seek coal from many distant sources.

13 7 The concentration of urban growth in coal-consuming areas and the more rapid expansion of the foreign population meant that coal consumption grew considerably faster than did total urban population. The growth of the coal industry 70 Relative fuel prices also influenced the demand for coal by urban households. Between 1900 and 1920 the reduction of the price ofcoal due to the construction of the railways was probably greater than that of other fuels, and so improved the competitive position of coal and increased its consumption.

Unfortunately no total traffic figures exist for years before 1915, but Table 12 summarizes the later figures, which show continuing growth in traffic, though much slower in the late 1920s and early 1930s than at other times. 8 million tons. Rapid growth of railway transport resumed on the eve of the war, raising total consumption to well over 3 million tons per annum. 33 Table 12. Growth of rail traffic and use of coal in locomotives Mine Period Percentage of total sales going to railways Zhalainuoer Fushun , Jingxing Kaiping Kaiping Zhongxing 1913-15 1907-10 1912-13 1906 1911 mid-19lOs 88 43 36 16 12 12 Sources: Horiuchi, 1967, p.

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