By Winston Chow, R.W. Brocksen, Joe Wisniewski
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IX half I convention precis assertion R. W. BROCKSEN, W. CHOW, E. D. DAUGHERTY, Y. G. MUSSALLI, J. WISNIEWSKI and A. L. WOODIS I fresh Water: components that impact its Availability, caliber and its Use: precis of the foreign Water convention 3-7 half II WATER source OVERVIEWS S. PECK I dealing with and keeping Our Water assets 11-20 R. BROCKSEN, W. CHOW and ok. CONNOR I Addressing electrical software floor Water demanding situations 21-29 C. LOHSE-HANSON I Lake enhanced Binational application: The position of electrical Utilities 31-40 J. A. VEIL and D. O. MOSES I effects of Proposed adjustments to scrub Water Act Thermal Discharges 41-52 half III ECOLOGICAL I wellbeing and fitness dangers c. SEIGNEUR, E. CONSTANTINOU and L. LEVIN I Multipathway health and wellbeing probability review of energy Plant Water Discharges 55-64 C. W. CHEN, J. HERR, R. A. GOLDSTEIN, F. J. SAGONA, ok. E. RYLANT and G. E. HAUSER I Watershed possibility research version for TVA's Holston River Basin 65-70 S. FERSON, L. R. GINZBURG and R. A. GOLDSTEIN I Inferring Ecological chance from Toxicity Bioassays 71-82 C. ARQUIETT, M. GERKE and that i. DATSKOU I review of infected Groundwater Cleanup pursuits 83-92 G. L. BOWIE, J. G. SANDERS, G. F. RIEDEL, C. C. GILMOUR, D. L. BREITBURG, G. A. CUTIER and D. B. PORCELLA / Assessing Selenium biking and Accumulation in Aquatic Ecosystems 93-104 D. W. RODGERS, J. SCHRODER and L.
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Additional info for Clean Water: Factors that Influence Its Availability, Quality and Its Use: International Clean Water Conference held in La Jolla, California, 28–30 November 1995
Lohse-Hanson Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Water Quality Division, 520 Lafayette Road, St. Paul, Minnesota 55155 Abstract. Lake Superior is called the greatest of the Great Lakes for good reason. It is the largest of the Great Lakes and also the cleanest. Although Lake Superior fish contain enough PCBs, mercury, and toxaphene to warrant fish consumption advisories, levels of toxic chemicals in Lake Superior are low compared to other Great Lakes. Because of the relatively clean waters of the lake and the basin's small industrial base, Lake Superior governments have agreed to set aside the basin as a special demonstration area with a goal of zero discharge and zero emission for nine toxic chemicals.
There are a variety of potential alternatives for each affected plant, including: • • • • seeking relaxed thermal discharge requirements from the state regulatory agency; retiring a plant; operating only seasonally or at a lower output; moving the discharge structure to deeper water; 44 J. A. VEIL AND D. O. MOSES • adding a diffuser; and • retrofittingb once-through cooling systems with cooling lakes or ponds or cooling towers. The 14 power companies that provided information reported that they would retrofit cooling towers at nearly all of their 3S plants now operating under §316(a) variances.
O. 3. COSTS ASSOCIATED WI1H THE ENERGY PENALTY Retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers to existing power plants results in a reduction of plant output known as the energy penalty. The energy penalty is caused by increases in turbine back pressure that result in less efficient power generation, additional power requirements for pumping recycled water to the top of a natural-draft cooling tower or operating the fans at a mechanical draft cooling tower, and increased pump head requirements due to the restricted flow through a diffuser.