By John R. Grace, Hsiaotao Bi (auth.), J. R. Grace, A. A. Avidan, T. M. Knowlton (eds.)
Since the overdue Seventies there was an explosion of business and educational curiosity in circulating fluidized beds. partially, the eye has arisen as a result of environmental merits linked to CFB (circulating . fluidized mattress) combustion structures, the incorporation of riser reactors applying cir culating fluidized mattress know-how in petroleum refineries for fluid catalytic cracking and, to a lesser volume, the successes of CFB expertise for calcina tion reactions and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. partially, it was once additionally the case that an excessive amount of awareness have been dedicated to effervescent fluidized beds and it was once time to maneuver directly to extra complicated and improved regime,S of operation. on the grounds that 1980 a few CFB methods were commercialized. there were 5 winning foreign Circulating Fluidized mattress Confer ences starting in 1985, the newest happening in Beijing in may possibly 1996. furthermore, we have now witnessed a bunch of different papers on CFB funda mentals and purposes in journals and different archival guides. There have additionally been a number of evaluate papers and books on particular CFB issues. besides the fact that, there was no finished ebook reviewing the sector and trying to offer an summary of either basics and functions. the aim of this ebook is to fill this vacuum.
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Extra resources for Circulating Fluidized Beds
R. (1994) Transition from bubbling to turbulent fluidization. AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, Nov. 13-18. T. R. (1995a) Effects of measurement methods on velocities used to demarcate the transition to turbulent fluidization. Chern. Eng. , 57, 261-271. T. R. (1995b) Flow regime diagrams for gas-solids fluidization and upward transport. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 21, 1229-1236. R. and Zhu, JX. (1993) On types of choking in pneumatic systems. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 19, 1077-1092. R. X. (1995) Regime transitions affecting gas-solids suspensions and fluidized beds.
24, 187-205. H. M. (1976) The fast fluidized bed. Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des. , 15,47-51. A. (1949) Two-phase fluidized-solid flow. Ind. Eng. , 41, 2801-2806. 999) and, on the other, with the hydrodynamic characteristics of particular types of gas-solid contacting devices. e. relative) velocity, should be the essential point of interest. From an engineering viewpoint, the major hydrodynamic issues are the effects of such design factors as column diameter, wall shape, gas distributor design, exit structure, solid separation and recycling devices, as well as operating conditions, on the performance of circulating systems.
Reaction Eng. II, Advances in Chern. Sciences (ed. M. Hulburt), American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp. 669-685. Y. H. (1966) A generalized method for predicting the minimum fluidization velocity. , 12, 610-612. C. (1975) A mathematical definition of choking phenomenon and a mathematical model for predicting choking velocity and choking voidage. , 21, 1013-1021. C. (1983) Criteria for choking in vertical pneumatic conveying lines. , 35, 143-150. Yerushalmi, J. (1986) High velocity fluidized beds, Chapter 7 in Gas Fluidization Technology (ed.