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By Michael Tooley

Tooley right here units out and defends realist bills of conventional empiricist factors of causation and legislation of nature, arguing that for the reason that reductionist debts of causation are uncovered to decisive objections, empiricists needs to holiday with that culture.

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Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1888), III. iii. 4, p. 607. See also Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, Appendix iv. 9 Treatise, III. iii. 6, pp. 618–21. Page 34 Naturally, different cultures emphasize different components of virtue: Christian virtue is not the same as pagan virtue. Military and aristocratic castes go in for the heroic virtues of superbia: pride and courage, a short fuse, an exaggerated sense of punctilio and honour. By contrast prudence, decorum, and self-control characterize the gentry and the bourgeoisie.

We see this well enough when emergencies force revaluations, like the starving Englishman forced to wonder whether he can eat without his dinner jacket. Let us consider in closer detail the intelligent participant. On the one hand, as participant, he is to concentrate only on what is required by the rules. On the other hand, as reflective thinker, he knows that the rules are there only for a purpose, and that this purpose may be better served by occasional infraction. How is he to know, we might ask, when to occupy the unthinking internal role, and when to adopt the more thoughtful, external perspective?

There are places, it seems, where only spontaneous emotion will do, and where ethical thinking should not intrude. If we think all practical living is like that, then ethical thought is left with no respectable place in our lives. It is only a highly imperialistic conception of ethics that is under attack here: a conception according to which ethics is to intrude into everything. This just means that an ethic which recommends that we feel no attitudes and emotions without ethical thought is unfit for human beings, and on that account alone ought to be rejected.

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