Download Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure and Remote Sensing by Eugene A. Sharkov PDF

By Eugene A. Sharkov

This publication represents the main entire description of the actual findings of an research into the spatio-temporal features of the gravity of breaking waves and the froth task in open sea through tools and tools of optical and microwave distant sensing.

The examine of actual and electrodynamics' homes of the gravity wave breaking procedures and the froth spatio-temporal task is a vital aspect of satellite tv for pc oceanography, ocean engineering, air-sea interplay and ocean distant sensing. particularly, the contribution of froth formations of varied forms to the suggest and the spatio-temporal adaptations of radio emission, back-scattering, IR and optical parameters of the disturbed sea floor is extremely major. The statistical features of wave breaking and attendant foam forming are extremely important to ocean wave dynamics. The research and size of spatio-temporal features of wave breaking and sea foam formations are of primary significance in ocean distant sensing.

Much emphasis is put on the actual facets of breaking techniques essential to degree the probabilities and boundaries of distant sensing equipment in particular remark instances of an oceanic floor. various useful functions and illustrations are supplied from air-borne, ship-borne and laboratory updated experiments.

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Additional info for Breaking Ocean Waves: Geometry, Structure and Remote Sensing (Springer Praxis Books / Geophysical Sciences)

Sample text

2 AFA-100. These instruments were installed, respectively, onboard the Russian airplane laboratories AN-30 and IL-14. Synchronous surveys from both have been performed from essentially different ranges of altitudes: 5100 and 400 m, respectively. In this way, on the one hand, a large spatial ®eld of the overall picture was achieved allowing the full breaking ®eld pattern to be viewed, and, on the other hand, satisfactory spatial resolution was provided for analyzing individual breaking processes.

2). Spectra SII ±SIV were normalized on the following basis: SII …150† À1 ; SIII …150† À2 ; SIV …150† À3 . SZ …jkj†. 4Ðwhich presents the results of contact measurements, transformed into the space of wavenumbers, and the single-point spectrum of altitudes SZ …jkj; †, restored from optical measurements (at an accuracy of a constant multiplier)Ðshows that the latter not only correctly re¯ects the general spectral dependence throughout the range of wavenumbers studied of about six octaves, but also coincides with the contact spectrum in details.

It can easily be seen that the wave age relations c=uà ! 30 are also satis®ed for X > 200 km (Papadimitrakis, 2005a,b) (where c is the phase velocity of a gravity wave corresponding to the spectrum maximum frequency), and for the dimensionless fetch the inequality Xg=u 2à > 4 Á 10 7 is met, which characterizes a fully developed sea state according to the data by Volkov (1968). 4 [Ch. 2 Restoration of the spectral characteristics of the sea surface from its optical images To restore the spatial spectral characteristics of the large-scale sea wave ®eld throughout the crossing of measurements, we applied the special technique for restoring the spectral characteristics of a rough surface from its optical images obtained by aerial survey (Lupyan and Sharkov, 1990).

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