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By J. Denstedt (Editor), A. Atala (Editor)

A useful source for clinicians in addition to for researchers in fabrics and biomedical units, this article summarizes fresh learn at the use of biomaterials and tissue engineering within the therapy of urological issues. half one reports the basics together with biofilms and encrustation formation. half then discusses fresh advances in biomaterials and the layout of urological units akin to steel ureteral stents, self-lubricating catheter fabrics, and penile implants. the ultimate part addresses urological tissue engineering, protecting synthetic and ordinary biomaterials, nanotechnology, and placental stem cells used for the regeneration of urological tissue and organs.

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1999). In the case of a biomaterial, once this irreversible attachment has taken place and a biofilm begins to form, at present it is virtually impossible to eradicate. e. blood, urine), which not only provide nutrients for the microbes but also adhere to the biomaterial themselves and form what is called a ‘conditioning film’ (Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrograph of a sterile urinary conditioning film formed after 24 hours on a titanium oxide surface. , 1992). This film negatively impacts the host in three critical ways.

The prototype double stents provided excellent flow that rivaled that of two stents juxtaposed.

Strategies to prevent or eliminate biofilms will be discussed in greater detail later in this chapter. As discussed, the most commonly employed strategy to date, once prosthetic infection has been identified, is the complete removal and replacement of the prosthetic device. The disadvantages of this approach include the greater risk to the patient with increasing surgery, the risk of persistent infection and the greater technical difficulty of replacing the prosthetic in a previous surgical site.

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