By H. Wyman Dorough, Sue K. Ballard (auth.), Fumio Matsumura, C. R. Krishna Murti (eds.)
When first constructed, chlorinated insecticides akin to DDT, dieldrin, and mirex have been got with open palms, quick turning into renowned as potent, monetary brokers opposed to pests. yet proof started to mount that residues of those chemical compounds remained within the setting, now not breaking down, usually showing in crops and animals. via the overdue seventies many insecticides had completed a bad notoriety and have been as a consequence banned in a few nations. Of large situation, then, is the endurance of insecticides within the atmosphere. the key thrust of study and improvement within the quarter of insecticides has correctly been the production of drugs which are either powerful and degradable. but that allows you to effectively advertise using biodegradable insecticides, one needs to totally comprehend the mechanism of decay, and it's to this important topic that we tackle ourselves within the current quantity. in keeping with the Biodegradation activity strength, protection of chemical substances Com mittee, Brussels (1978), biodegradation should be outlined because the molecular degradation of an natural substance because of the complicated motion of residing organisms. A substance is expounded to be biodegraded to an environmentally applicable volume while environmentally bad houses are misplaced. lack of a few attribute functionality or estate of substance through biodegradation could be known as organic transformation.
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Additional info for Biodegradation of Pesticides
1960), but in wheat grains apparent cleavage by amidase reaction occurred to give traces of mono-O-methylS-carboxymethyl phosphorothiolothionate (Rowlands, 1966). 15. Apparent hydrolysis of the organophosphate insecticide dimethoate in plants. Richard H. Shimabukuro et al. 42 MALATHION ° ~ ° ° II II II (CH30)2P-S-CH-C-OC2H5 - - - - - (CH30)2P-OH I oC 2 H5 CH 2 -R- + ° II (CH 3 0)2 P-SH ° MALAOXON ° ! 16. ° ° II (CH 3 0)2 P-S-yH-COOH CH 2-COOH Apparent hydrolysis of malathion in wheat grain. grains with the formation of nontoxic dimethylphosphorothionate and dimethylphosphorothiolothionate (Fig.
1979). , 1979). Carbamate insecticides are metabolized readily in plants by oxidation and conjugation (Casida and Lykken, 1969; Kuhr and Casida, 1967). The carbamate ester group of carbaryl and several phenyl-N-methyl carbamates remained largely intact in bean plants (Fig. 3), but very little unchanged carbaryl was detected. Within 6 days, most of the insecticide was metabolized to water-soluble glycosides and insoluble residue (Kuhr and Casida, 1967). , 1971). Richard H. Shimabukuro et a/. 2.
Mandel, H. , 1971, Pathways of drug biotransformation: Biochemical conjugations, in: Fundamentals of Drug Metabolism and Drug Disposition (B. LaDu, H. Mandel and E. ), pp. 149-186, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. March, R. , Metcalf, R. , Fukuto, T. , and Maxon, M. , 1955, Metabolism of Systox in the white mouse and American cockroach, J. Econ. Entomol. 48:355. , 1975, Toxicology of Insecticides, Plenum Press, New York. Melnikov, N. , 1971, Chemistry of Pesticides, p. 59, Springer-Vedag, New York.