By Ara Norenzayan
How did human societies scale up from tight-knit teams of hunter-gatherers to the massive, nameless, cooperative societies of today--even notwithstanding anonymity is the enemy of cooperation? How did equipped religions with "Big Gods"--the nice monotheistic and polytheistic faiths--spread to colonize so much minds on this planet? In Big Gods, Ara Norenzayan makes the dazzling argument that those primary puzzles in regards to the origins of civilization solution each one other.
Sincere religion in watchful sizeable Gods unleashed extraordinary cooperation inside ever-expanding teams, but while it brought a brand new resource of capability clash among competing teams. And in a few components of the realm, societies with atheist majorities--some of the main cooperative and filthy rich within the world--have climbed religion's ladder, after which kicked it away.
Big Gods" solutions basic questions on the origins and unfold of global religions and is helping us comprehend the increase of cooperative societies with out trust in gods.
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Additional resources for Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict
Others have suggested adding law making and policy development,49 economic growth50 or civil freedoms,51 though the case for these as being critical appears weak. The making of laws and policies is very 30 Religion and Post-Conflict Statebuilding different from their successful application, which requires at the very least basic human needs being met as well as stability. Economic growth, while necessary for failing states to make the transition out of fragility, unless adequately distributed, can be a destabilizing factor in the immediate post-conflict aftermath, while a lack of civil freedoms has not hampered many high growth states.
37 The implication for state builders is that to acquire legitimacy, nearly always at the expense of an existing system, the new structure of division being introduced must be shown to be able to better serve the common interest of both the newly appointed dominant group and the subordinate groups (which could include remnants of the former dominant group). This view has been reached through another route by making the case for recognizing the changing composition of the dominant and subordinate groups through a peace building perspective.
32 The UK government realized the importance of grounding military intervention in a more robust legal framework than the coalition had at the time. Controversially, the invasion continued without the additional, much needed, legitimacy of a UN resolution authorizing force, which subsequently created substantial problems for the post-conflict statebuilding effort by, in part, having a limited number of states involved in the coalition of the willing. As far as how an authority exercises its power, legal validity is of particular interest to legal scholars, constitutionalists and ‘rule of law’ specialists.