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By Omar W. Nasim

The writer demonstrates the numerous function that the various Edwardian philosophers performed within the formation of Russell's paintings at the challenge of the exterior global performed on the tail-end of an issue which raged among approximately 1900-1915.

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Extra info for Bertrand Russell and the Edwardian Philosophers: Constructing the World (History of Analytic Philosophy)

Sample text

For the real extension may remain constant, while its appearance alters, and it does not in its own nature include or imply the concept of change’ (Stout 1904, 150). Part of the importance of this argument rests in the fact that it is one of the main reasons why Stout introduces mental presentations. In many ways arguments like this are used by Stout to demonstrate the essential inclusion of mental presentations into any theory of perception. 71 Cook Wilson thinks such arguments for the introduction of mental presentations into our knowledge of the external world rest on an important presupposition that Stout overlooks.

But if our knowledge of what is represented is acquired only by inference from these mediating factors (like a ‘felt’ or sensible extension), then it is ‘impossible’ to have either of these two different conditions fulfilled for representation, because inference is not direct knowledge of what is represented. So any correlation, whether of likeness or association, can only be had from already knowing directly what is represented. Cook Wilson makes an interesting comment in this regard: ‘As to this knowledge [of correlation], it seems clear that we could not get it at all if our datum was the mere sensation, given without any relation to extension.

For Dawes Hicks this is exactly the point Stout misses when he takes his presentations to be distinct psychical existents. Dawes Hicks reminds us that ‘to presentations, in the sense of contents, the predicate of existence does not rightly attach’ (Dawes Hicks 1906a, 279). 56 So if presentations are not psychical existents in their own right, how are we to understand them? 57 When he says sense-presentations are a product of mental acts he means to suggest that it is ‘not a given fact’, but rather it is ‘that which arises in and through the act of apprehension’ (Dawes Hicks 1906a, 309).

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