By Masoud Farzaneh
Atmospheric ice takes quite a lot of interesting varieties, all attractive of their personal methods yet many posing serious probability to the protection of overhead networks for electrical strength, communications and different platforms. This comprehensive e-book files the basics of atmospheric icing and surveys the state-of-the-art in 8 chapters, every one written by means of a group of skilled and across the world popular specialists. The therapy is special and richly illustrated. The presentation follows a logical series, beginning with the icing weather and meteorological stipulations, continuing via improvement of observations and types of accretion and unencumber of ice and heavy snow, then contemplating static and dynamic mechanical a lot, the results of ice and snow on electric insulation, de-icing, ice prevention and mitigation tools. The statistical research of icing information and the mathematical and numerical modelling help acceptable mechanical and electric layout procedures for icing stipulations on overhead strains. Technical experts, researchers and scholars in engineering and environmental technology will all locate price during the text.
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Additional resources for Atmospheric Icing of Power Networks
The results from the Yll¨as experiment suggest that there is good potential for quantitative forecasts of in-cloud icing episodes, using current NWP models at high spatial resolution, with sophisticated cloud microphysics parameterizations. The icing episodes studied in this experiment were dominated by stratified continental air, with clouds consisting mostly of supercooled water. The model seems to perform well under such conditions. A dramatic improvement is found when comparing to the HIRLAM model results from 10 years ago.
10 Maximum ice accumulation during 378 icing events at Mont B´elair, Quebec, Canada, between 1992 and 2006. Theoretical fitting functions: Weibull and Pareto 48 M. Farzaneh, K. 3845 are determined using the method of maximum likelihood. Visual inspection of the fitting in Fig. 10 seems to show that the Weibull law fits better the experimental distribution, though the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit test rejects both Weibul and Pareto hypotheses. In spite of the exceptionally large annual number of icing events observed at Mont B´elair (on average 27 icing events per year), due to the relatively small number of years of observation (14 years), it is impossible to determine if the right tail of the experimental distribution is of exponential or Pareto type.
1 First Experiment - Yll¨as Measurements were made at the top of Mt. 3◦ E) in Northern Finland, at an elevation of 706 m. It is a rounded peak and is the highest mountain in a large region. At Mt. Yll¨as, accurate in-situ measurements of in-cloud icing have been carried out for several years, using a rotating multi-cylinder instrument (Makkonen 1992). The simulations were configured with a triple nested domain. 825 km. Such high horizontal resolution gives a detailed representation of the terrain in the model, which is very important when phenomena forced by the terrain itself are studied, for example the orographic production of cloud water, when moist air masses are lifted along a hillside.