By meshorer ya'akov
Exam of the cash of historic Israel from forty B.C.E. via four B.C.E.
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Extra info for Ancient Jewish Coinage Vol. 2: Herod the Great through Bar Cochba
However, refraining from an expansive foreign policy against Byzantium and sympathising with the Christians made Yazdgard I the target of accusations by the bellicose Persian nobility as well as the Zoroastrian priesthood. Towards the end of Yazdgard’s reign the Christians were persecuted again (32) and many Persian Christians escaped to the West. Yazdgard’s successor, Bahr¯am V G¯or (420–39), demanded that Theodosius II (408–50) extradite them. When the latter refused, the Sasanian king continued the persecutions initiated by his predecessor.
Although S¯ of his rule, West and East always remembered that he had defeated the Romans several times, that Gordian III had met his death in the battle of Miˇs¯ık and that Valerian had been captured. The activities of Odaenathus of Palmyra rather than Roman offensives ˇ ap¯ur I deserve credit for the fact that the territories and cities conquered by S¯ remained in Persian hands only for a short period of time. On behalf of the Romans Odaenathus promoted Western interests against Sasanian claims.
17 The claim for world domination prevented the imperium Romanum and other states from coexisting as equal partners bound by principles of international law. However, Augustus’ policy in the East paved the way for a new attitude. 20 The treaty acknowledged the fact that Rome was, in the long term, not in a position to control vast territories beyond the Euphrates. 22 However, by refraining from further expansion in the East Rome acknowledged the military strength of the Parthian kingdom. Authors of the early imperial period talk about the Parthian kingdom and the Roman empire as maxima imperia23 and as ‘the two greatest rules under the sun’,24 and the Augustan historian Pompeius Trogus saw the world as divided between Romans and Parthians;25 there is no doubt that such statements reflect emerging rules of an international community of which the Parthian kingdom was a part.