By Yiping Huang
The profitable agricultural reform conducted in China within the Seventies begun encountering mounting problems from the mid-1980s, as progress charges dropped and costs elevated sharply. This learn analyzes the various reform measures brought in China long ago two decades, and offers a whole research of the prevailing agricultural approach. via cautious exam of the political financial system and different coverage ideas, the writer argues that China should still push ahead with its market-oriented reform measures and introduce the trials of overseas pageant into the rural area.
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Additional info for Agricultural Reform in China: Getting Institutions Right (Trade and Development)
Changes in prices received for exported goods were never transmitted to farmers. 1. 1 Note: " In the exports sub-table, textile fibres is a sub-group of all raw materials, and in the imports sub-table, machinery and chemicals are sub-groups of all manufacturing. Source: Sung 1994. Unifying purchase and marketing systems State purchase and marketing of agricultural products, mainly grain, began in 1950. At that time, however, the state bought from markets at market prices and competed with other commercial agents.
3 per cent per annum between 1952 and 1979. After some thirty years, China had established a relatively complete and independent national industrial sector, even if inefficient resource use was widespread. Investment even contributed to specialisation in some capital-intensive sectors and promoted export growth during the reform period. Inefficient agricultural policies The pattern of development in the pre-reform period was not sustainable because it was not consistent with principles of economic efficiency and welfare optimisation.
The programme started in June 1950 and was completed by Institutional distortions in pre-reform agriculture 27 September 1952. Estimates are that about 300 million farmers acquired some 700 million mu (or 47 million hectares) of arable land (S. Guo et al. 1989). After acquiring land poor peasants fared much better, and farmhands became producers. In spite of farmers' enthusiasm, problems arose. Farmers could not prosper on the small pieces of land they had acquired and some lost their land because of poor management skills.