By S. M. Geddes (auth.)
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L' ~ • -- ' ~ 6 8 • • • \ / 0 I \ I I I I / / I I / N shell The structure of an iron atom Magnetisation If a specimen of magnetic material is placed in an external magnetic field, the domains will tend to turn into line with the field, and the specimen will show induced magnetism. Different magnetic materials vary in their response to external fields. Soft iron responds easily, but steel is less responsive since the processes of its manufacture (particularly the hardening process) have made it more difficult for the domains to turn within the lattice structure.
19 (p. 41). R 1 = 1 Q, R 2 = 2 Q, R4 = 4 Q, and R 3 is a variable resistor. 5 A. C. measuring instruments The moving-coil milliammeter This is the instrument most generally used in circuit work. It consists of a rectangular coil of a number of turns of fine copper wire which is pivoted on jewelled bearings between the poles of a permanent horseshoe magnet (Fig. 25). The electromagnetic field produced around the coil when a current is passed through it is increased by the use of a soft-iron cylindrical core.
26). This is generally only a short length of resistance wire, soldered in place inside the case of the instrument. Multi-meters are supplied with a set of shunts which fix externally across the terminals of the meter. 50 ADVANCED PHYSICS Fig. 26 A shunt used with a milliammeter To calculate the value of the shunt needed for a particular conversion, it is best first to consider how much current may pass through the meter, and so how much must be by-passed through the shunt. Then, since the shunt and the meter are to be in parallel, resistance of shunt resistance of meter current through meter current through shunt· Voltmeters Moving-coil voltmeters are merely adaptations of moving-coil milliammeters, the scale of the instrument being marked appropriately in volts or millivolts by the use of Ohm's law.