By Lois N. Magner
Stressing significant subject matters within the background of drugs, this moment version explores the occasions, methodologies, and theories that formed clinical practices in many years earlier and in smooth medical perform. It highlights practices of civilizations around the globe and learn of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our present figuring out of well-being and disorder. New sections disguise preventive and replacement medication, scientific schooling for girls, miasma and contagion theories, the specter of epidemic sickness, altering styles of morbidity and mortality, public health and wellbeing and sanitary reforms, the excessive expense of remedy, ailments of affluence and getting older, and the emergence of latest ailments.
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Additional info for A History of Medicine, Second Edition
Wounds were due to direct human error or aggression. Therefore, those who wielded the ‘‘bronze knife’’ were accountable to earthly authorities. Fees and penalties for surgical operations were substantial. If a doctor performed a major operation and saved the life or the eyesight of a seignior, his fee was 10 shekels of silver. The fee was reduced by half for operating on a commoner, and was only two shekels when the patient was a slave. However, if the surgeon performed such an operation and caused the death of a seignior, or destroyed his eye, the doctor’s hand should be cut off.
The doctrine of signatures is another guiding principle of folk medicine. According to this concept, God has furnished the world with diseases and remedies and has taught us that nothing exists without a purpose. Therefore, we may assume that God has marked potential remedies with some sign hinting at their medicinal virtues. For example, a plant remedy for jaundice might sport yellow ﬂowers and remedies for heart disease might be found in plants with heart-shaped leaves. Many folk remedies require the parts and products of animals.
At the Temple of Sais, near the Rosetta Mouth of the Nile, there was a medical school where 42 A History of Medicine Egyptian mummies, pyramids, and the embalming process as depicted in a seventeenth century French engraving. women professors taught obstetrics and gynecology to female students. Women may have studied at the medical school at Heliopolis. According to Egyptian medical theory, human beings were born healthy, but were innately susceptible to disorders caused by intestinal putrefaction, visible or occult external entities, and strong emotions, such as sorrow, unrequited love, and homesickness.